Deep Venous Thrombosis
Deep venous thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot in the veins anywhere in the body. As a rule, it occurs in older people but can occur at any age. It usually occurs in the legs, rarely hands, as is the case with people who perform physical activities, raise or carry heavy loads. It may affect persons confined to bed due to illness, surgery, and persons with malignant diseases. Infections and inflammation also increase the risk of thrombosis.
In healthy individuals, there may also be a genetic predisposition to thrombosis caused by a blood coagulation disorder. However, there is also a provoking factor that leads to the disorder.
In order to prevent venous thrombosis, healthy persons should avoid long time sitting and standing. Since it is sometimes impossible due to the type of work or situation, occasional leg stretching is recommended.
Symptoms of deep venous thrombosis include swollen, sensitive, or red areas on the leg, numbness, and pain when walking or standing on the leg. In some cases, the symptoms of thrombosis may be imperceptible and unrecognizable. Thrombosis is not such a serious disease, but it can have life-threatening effects. For example, if the blood clot breaks off and travels into the lungs, it can cause a pulmonary embolism. Even if a pulmonary embolism does not develop, untreated deep vein thrombosis can cause post-thrombotic syndrome - permanent damage to deep vein valves, which results in chronic swelling of the leg, pain, and in severe cases leads to the formation of a venous ulcer (wound). Untreated deep vein thrombosis can lead to the development of leg ischaemia due to blockage of circulation in the leg.
Ischaemia is manifested by pain, developing wounds on the legs, infection or even gangrene.
At increased risk of deep vein thrombosis are people with heart and liver disease, obesity and anemia, as well as inactive individuals after traumatic injury or fracture, and pregnant women.
Most patients do not understand the severity of their condition. Incorrect treatment and poor results contribute to the appearance of disability and the inability to perform professional duties. The treatment of deep venous thrombosis is within the competence of a vascular surgeon. The diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis is determined by insight into the clinical picture of the patient, and the degree of damage to venous circulation by ultrasound sonography, which provides insight into the image of deep and superficial veins and their valves, which is important when deciding which therapy to apply.
Deep venous thrombosis can also occur as a complication of inflammation on the superficial venous system. In dilated superficial veins, inflammation and a blood clot can develop, which may spread to the deep venous system and thus lead to serious complications listed above.